They are all PASSIVE treatments with limited evidence about their efficacy in treating musculoskeletal injuries.
PT’s have used the top 2 treatments (electrical stimulation and ultrasound) for decades now based on anecdotal evidence provided by their patients. Sure, it makes them feel kind of good while receiving the treatment, but does it actually make LASTING results? It’s like banging your head against a wall and taking some aspirin to ease the headache. Is that approach fixing anything? We probably have to address the head banging, or in our case, the movement impairment first.
Cupping and IASTM (Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Manipulation) have been used for thousands of years but have recently infiltrated the rehab world. Practitioners who use these claim that they help to “release toxins” and release “bad blood” (hence the bruising) respectively. However, when we look at the stronger level evidence (randomized control trials & systematic reviews), the modalities’ ineffectiveness become apparent.